According to a review published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, CBD has the following beneficial properties:
Just like marijuana, CBD when taken in the right dose has been shown to match the same level of pain reduction compared to drugs like morphine and oxycodone.
We’re learning that CBD may have a host of brain-related benefits involving reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety, plus some intriguing neuroprotective benefits as well.
THC and CBD... What’s The Difference?
While cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannibidiol (THC) are the two primary chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant, the two are hardly created equal.
THC is the psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana that gives you the sensation of being “high”, whereas CBD is completely non-psychoactive, possessing none of the euphoric, mind-altering effects that THC boasts (1, 2 ). CBD is among at least 85 different active cannabinoids found in cannabis, but accounts for a sizable 40% of the plant’s total cannabinoid content.
Mechanistically speaking, THC and CBD share some of the same target receptors in the brain. THC primarily acts upon receptors CB1 and CB2, the classic cannabinoid receptors involved in mood, appetite, pain, and memory. CBD can act indirectly on the two receptors, albeit with a significantly less affinity, which is why you won’t feel the psychological effects.
When taken together, CBD can extend the effects of THC, but when taken by itself, CBD acts upon the 5-HT1A receptor, which is the most widespread of the 5-HT receptors in the entire central nervous system (3). It is believed that the downstream benefits of CBD result from stimulation of this prominent receptor.
We know that CBD acts upon the 5-HT1A in the following systems in the brain:
CBD's Effect On Anxiety, Stress, and Depression
A number of human and animal studies have demonstrated CBD’s efficacy as an anxiolytic compound, which means it can relieve the characteristic network of symptoms related to stress, depression, and anxiety.
One study administering a dose of 400 mg CBD reduced anxiety in volunteers during a simulated public-speaking procedure and neuroimaging showed changes in brain activity related to the control of emotional processes.
It’s thought that CBD influences neuron activity in the hippocampus (the region of the brain involved in memory consolidation and formation) by increasing calcium ion concentrations in the mitochondria. It has also been shown that CBD attenuates blood oxygenation and impairs connectivity in the amygdala, the region of the brain involved with the experiencing of emotions.
When looking to tie a reported benefit, such as reduced anxiety or stress, with a specific target mechanism, things can become pretty messy. The fact is, while these benefits have been observed in both human and animal trials, there is a considerable amount of overlap. Though the exact mechanisms are yet to be elucidated, it’s clear that CBD acts upon several different pathways involved in relieving the symptoms of stress and anxiety. In fact, the collective research demonstrates that something as natural and innocuous as CBD oil can be as effective as a pharmaceutical alternative like valium or diazepam
What About CBD’s Clinical Application?
While the benefits of CBD look promising and there are some general mechanisms at play, the clinical application remains unknown.
An important point to remember is that clinical studies have the luxury of injecting CBD directly into brain tissue to observe its effects, especially in the case of animal studies. For human subjects, we just don't have that luxury which is why it's a good rule of thumb to take all animal research with a grain of salt. This findings of animal research help generate new knowledge and better questions to ask as we investigate the topic further in humans.
As far as the consumer is concerned, CBD oil is readily available on the market right now, however, the absorption rate is incredibly low, as CBD is a water insoluble compound. Additionally, there isn’t yet a clear dose-response relationship for any of the aforementioned benefits